2-minute turn

A standard rate of turn is defined as a 3° per second turn, which completes a 360° turn in 2 minutes. This is known as a 2-minute turn. Fast airplanes, or aircraft on certain precision approaches, use a half standard rate but the definition of standard rate does not change.

Begone birds

Via the Pigeon Control Resource Centre.

According to manufacturers’ claims strobe lights can be an effective bird control product with a wide variety of birds including pigeons, swallows, starlings, crows, waterfowl and blackbirds making the product extremely versatile.

So not only do your strobes alert traffic, they also can ward off birds. There is around 13,000 bird strikes annually in the US alone.

Turn off your strobes, oh wait

Some General Aviation Aircraft in Infinite Flight do not have a rotating/flashing beacon. In the case that your Aircraft does not have a red rotating/flashing beacon, you would use the strobes. If its nighttime, you may not want to use the strobes so in that case you’d just use your nav and taxi lights as a means of identifying that your aircraft is on.

Whippage

Ever heard of “Bend it like Beckham”? Whippage is a football (soccer) term, used to describe the amount of curve you put on the ball when shooting.

It’s also the word I use to describe this Radar frequency technique, primarily used when clearing aircraft for an ILS/GPS Approach.

It’s required that you clear an aircraft on a heading where they would intercept the localizer on a 10 to 30 degree angle. Nothing more nothing less. So if you have N632KB on right base for runway 2, you’d need to clear N623KB on a heading of 010 to 350. But if you know the aircraft will be cleared too late, then you can then whip them around. Instead, you could clear N623KB at 030 to 050. Still the required 10 to 30 degree angle.

Vague Flight Rules

In the real world, regulations do not set a specific distance that pilots flying under VFR must maintain. The following guideline is provided in §91.111 of the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations.

§91.111, Operating near other aircraft: (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight except by arrangement with the pilot in command of each aircraft in the formation.

Space out at cruise

In the real world, at higher operating speeds above 10,000 feet and based on the type of Radar and distance from the antennae — a 5 mile rule is applied laterally. This is true in most but not all situations. In Infinite Flight there is no set rule for pilots to follow, but this should be a guideline you try to follow while flying on any server.

Was that for me, or someone else?

According to a study by the Dutch National Research Laboratory (NLR):

NLR found that the contributory factors most often cited in communication problems involving similar call signs were related to human factors:
(a) controller accent (34%);
(b) controller speech rate (28%);
(c) pilot distraction (25%); (d) pilot expectation (22%); (e) pilot fatigue (20%).

If someone has a similar callsign as you, pay attention and be mindful.

How are airline callsigns assigned?

Three things are to be considered when assignig an airline a new ICAO three letter code.

  • The three letter code must be unique to the aircraft operator
  • The R/T designator (callsign) must not cause confusion with other operators flying in the same area, preferably at most three syllables long and it must be pronounceable in at least one of the following languages; English, French, Spanish or Russian.
  • Since there are many operators that have “airline” or “airways” in their name, that word is usually avoided in the R/T designator as it easily causes confusion.

One airport, two different approaches

Efficiency is one of the most important parts of being a controller. Each controller will have their own strategy, no two approaches are a like.

That is particularly try for this session I had with two radar controllers, both using different strategies. I’d encourage you to watch this video of a time-lapse if that session for context.

The first strategy can be seen depicted here, and in the video. The workload for me, final approach was quite high, maintaining spacing mostly via speed commands. I had room on the 5000ft leg and 4000ft leg to slot people in if they needed slotted in. That can be seen on occasions in the video, with go arounds.

The second strategy was very nice looking. Depicted here and in the video, the spin cycle was very pleasing on the eye. Lower workload for final approach, but less margin for error and only one leg to create space for go arounds and inbound aircraft from all directions.

After reviewing the replay and doing some math, I’ve determined that the first strategy was more efficient. As most of the traffic came from the East and South, I compared the two. For the first strategy; it took aircraft 32 minutes to fly the entire approach from the South and 36 minutes from the West. For the second strategy; it took aircraft 43 minutes to fly the entire approach from the South and 52 minutes from the West. Large differences, I’d prefer the first strategy but both are great options in comparison to any others. Whatever works!