If everything was perfect, you would never learn and you would never grow. – BeyoncÃ© Knowles
Prescribed altitudes may be depicted in four different configurations: minimum, maximum, mandatory, and recommended. The U.S. Government distributes charts produced by National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and FAA. Altitudes are depicted on these charts in the profile view with underscore, overscore, both or none to identify them as minimum, maximum, mandatory or recommended.
An NDB or Non-Directional Beacon is a ground-based, low frequency radio transmitter used as an instrument approach for airports and offshore platforms. They were added yesterday in a new Infinite Flight hotfix, seen below.
NDBs are highly reliable, typically provide decades of uninterrupted service. Because of this, NDBs are the most widely used navaid in the world.
In addition to serving as stand-alone primary instrument approaches at airports, NDBs are also used as Locator Outer Markers (LOM) for Instrument landing Systems (ILS). Outer Markers designate the starting area of an ILS approach or flight path to follow for a standard terminal arrival or STAR procedure.
A ground stop is an air traffic control measure that slows or halts the flow of aircraft inbound to a given airport. Ground stops may occur during an event or when the traffic level exceeds a certain limit.
A ground stop does not affect flights en route, but a ground stop is often accompanied by orders to divert to other airports.
Required Navigation Performance (RNP) is similar to Area Navigation (RNAV); but, RNP requires on-board navigation performance monitoring and alerting capability to ensure that the aircraft stays within a specific containment area.
Not only does RNP offer safety benefits with precision and accuracy, it reduces the cost of inefficiencies such as multiple step-down non-precision and circling approaches (saving fuel and time).
This type of approach can be seen at Madeira (LPMA) for example:
Photo Source: USAC Aviation, Jeppesen
Area navigation (RNAV) is a method of instrument flight rules (IFR) navigation that allows an aircraft to choose any course within a network of navigation beacons, rather than navigate directly to and from the beacons. This can conserve flight distance, reduce congestion, and allow flights into airports without beacons. Area navigation used to be called “random navigation”, hence the acronym RNAV. It allows its position to be continuously determined wherever it is rather than only along tracks between individual ground navigation aids.
From those going through the process of becoming a controller all the way up to seasoned veteran controllers, we all need some help sometimes refocusing our mind. Controlling can be stressful and difficult, so every Monday we’ll be posting something motivational to give you that extra boost you may need.
This week we’ll be focusing on patience, patience is key in any profession but especially controlling.
“To lose patience is to lose the battle.” – Mahatma Gandhi
The “Minimums” callout is made at the minimum altitude, and this is the point that the Pilot Flying has to make a decision — continue or go around. His response at this point is again standardized so that the other pilot is entirely clear on the course of action. His response is usually something like “Landing” or “Continue”, or else “Go Around.” Often, the autopilot comes off at this point as well & you hear the horn indicating such on the CVR as well.
Source: Aviation StackExchange
Separation requirements depend on the class of airspace, per ICAO Annex 11.â€©Class D: VFR aircraft are not separated from any other aircraft. ATC only provides traffic information about VFR aircraft.
The primary purpose of the ATC system is to prevent a collision involving aircraft operating in the system.