Wind shear is a change in wind speed and/or direction over a short distance. It can occur either horizontally or vertically and is most often associated with strong temperature inversions or density gradients. Wind shear can occur at high or low altitude.
Four common sources of low-level wind shear are—
- Frontal activity
- Temperature inversions
- Surface obstructions
Wind shear is currently not implemented in Infinite Flight but it has a very big role of course in the real world.
Airplane pilots generally regard significant wind shear to be a horizontal change in airspeed of 30 knots for light aircraft, and near 45 knots for airliners at flight altitude.
1. ”Wind Shear” by the FAA. [PDF]
2. FAA Advisory Circular Pilot Wind Shear Guide
Mastering either the crab and wing low technique is essential to any crosswind landing. It can be a challenge for any pilot, no matter their experience.
In situations where a crosswind is present, the aircraft will drift laterally as it approaches the runway. This drift poses significant safety issues because safe operation of the undercarriage requires the body and track of the aircraft to be aligned with the runway at touch down.
Here’s a video put out by Infinite Flight on both techniques.
If you read it, it’s true. If you hear it, it’s magnetic.
All charts and textual sources such as the METAR, TAF, winds aloft, surface analysis charts, etc. use true north as the reference.
ATIS broadcasts, or any information a controller gives you over the radio, is magnetic. From the AIM, “Wind direction broadcast over FAA radios is in reference to magnetic north.”
1. AIM Section 7-1-11 page 7-1-26 in the 5/26/16 edition.